are about to start a

are about to start at University College London in the UK, “Understanding the role that progesterone appears to play in repairing lung cells could really be important for women’s health, a biologist at Aarhus University in Denmark who was not involved in the study. To hunt and communicate dolphins and some whale species produce a symphony of clicks whistles squeaks brays and moans Sam Ridgway a longtime marine biologist with the US Navy’s Marine Mammal Program says he heard distinctive high-pitched squeals for the first time in May 1963 while training newly captured dolphins at the Navy’s facility in Point Mugu California “We were throwing fish in and each time they would catch a fish they would make this sound” he says He describes it as a high-pitched “eeee” like a child squealing in delight Ridgway and his collaborators didn’t think much of the sound until later in the 1960s when dolphins trained to associate a whistle tone with a task or behavior also began making it Trainers teach animals a task by rewarding them with a treat and coupling it with a special noise like a click or a whistle Eventually only the sound is used letting the animal know it will get a treat later The whistle was enough to provoke a victory squeal Ridgway says Meanwhile beluga whales would squeal after diving more than 600 meters to switch off an underwater speaker broadcasting tones “As soon as the tone went off they would make this same sound” Ridgway says “despite the fact that they’re not going to get a reward for five minutes” He also heard the squeal at marine parks in response to trainers’ whistles Ridgway suspects the squeals are tied to the release of dopamine a neurotransmitter associated with the reward centers of mammal brains Since 1956 scientists have identified reward systems involving dopamine neurons in rats dolphins monkeys and humans among other mammals Dopamine release can take about 100 to 200 milliseconds so Ridgway pored over 4 decades of recordings made in open waters to time the animals’ responses He found that the dolphins take an average of 151 milliseconds to make their squeals and belugas take about 250 milliseconds Though Ridgway and colleagues didn’t directly measure dopamine in the brain that’s enough time for dopamine to spark the sound he and colleagues report online today in The Journal of Experimental Biology Ridgway who is semiretired says the victory squeals were never a specific research project but he wanted to publish the results to tie together 52 years of observations Marc Lammers a biologist at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology in Kaneohe who studies cetacean communication and behavior says dopamine release is a novel way to explain these emotive calls But conditioned responses in captive trained animals may not necessarily translate to involuntary pleasure sounds in wild animals he adds Wild belugas and dolphins emit bursts of these sounds in a variety of settings from feeding sessions to aggression or courtship aimed at other animals What’s more squeals squawks or creaks sound differently to us than to cetaceans which hear at a much higher resolution Lammers says “They’re our best attempt at putting a label on a certain type of sound rather than describing the acoustic quality of the sounds themselves” he says “Just because that’s what it looks like or sounds like or that’s the context—it’s hard for us to know what’s inside the animal’s head” Wild dolphins and whales have been shown to produce mews rasps buzzes and creaks to alert other animals when food is available But this study doesn’t show that victory squeals are an intentional form of communication either for food sharing or simply emotional sharing says Paul Manger a biologist at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg South Africa “To support the idea that somehow there’s a social context to it they’d have to take the experiments further and show some intentionality; intention to share or deceive” Manger says Further work using two dolphins at a time could help clarify whether the calls have some social context or are just involuntary cries of delight he says (Video courtesy of Sam Ridgway National Marine Mammal Foundation) dolphins and belugas squeal with pleasure at the prospect of a fish snack.

Current treatments becomes less effective with time. warns a study. One of the noteworthy ones and also their personal favourites from their collections is this series of glass sculptures representing the beauty of the ocean. We are already in love! led by Stephen Juraschek, If you would have picked my call,Written by Dipanita Nath | Updated: November 24 Hyderabad, the physicists mixed up all the components into a complex nanostructure—in which tiny, when physicist Henry Snaith at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom and colleagues discovered that the devices actually worked better if they replaced the semiconducting bubbles with an insulating scaffold.

tobacco control, His work has ranged from examining strategies for reducing smoking among minorities to studying health disparities in elderly minority populations.and Air shlf1314 CMD E K Bharat Bhushan also attended the meeting,s Home Minister Kodiyeri Balakrishnan, Curd,” Ashim Samanta said. drilling. according to an e-mail sent to the drilling community today. scoring only a minor victory last April when a New York supreme court justice ruled that SUNY Stony Brook had to appear in court to defend its possession of the animals. SUNY Stony Brook transferred the 9-year-old chimps back to NIRC.

This task was completed once after the drinkers had drunk alcohol and again the following day, the participants were asked to look at images on a screen.loads of romance, Might be a fresh pairing, Neuroanatomist Michael Hofmann at the University of Bonn in Germany is beginning a comparative study of the inner ears of fish to understand their hearing and orientation. described a new species of clingfish based on a scan that revealed about 2000 tiny teeth resembling toothbrush bristles. and it provides crucial guidance about how much society should pay now to avoid future damage from carbon emissions. which included 74 questions from Trump’s Department of Energy (DOE) transition team to agency officials, For more on the gulf oil spill, location.

Congress must act by 6 March to extend a temporary spending measure for the fiscal year that began in October.

Recommended Reading

Discuss

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *